By P. G. von Mollendorff

A Manchu Grammar: with Analysed Texts
Paul Georg von Mollendorff

Contents

I-Phonology
--Alphabet (Table) Pronunciation
--Harmony of Vowels
--Diphthongs and Triphthongs
--Word adjustments and overseas phrases

II-Etymology
--Nouns and Adjectives, Terminations, Plural Case Affixes
--Pronouns
--Numerals
--Verbs, Derivation, Moods and Tenses, Irregularities, Negation
--Adverbs
--Postpositions
--Conjunctions
--Interjections

III-Syntax

Manchu Texts with Translation and research

Index of Affixes and phrases

Appendix--European Literature Treating on Manchu

Introduction

There is as but no grammar of the Manchu language in English. Wylie's translation of Tsing Wan Ki Mung, Shanghai, 1855, one of those Mauchu hand-book for using chinese language, although important and whole of curiosity, is under no circumstances a grammar.

The common curiosity taken in each language will, after all, be additionally prolonged to Manchu; nonetheless a couple of phrases look essential to convey the actual usefulness of its research.

There exist in all approximately 25O works in Manchu, the majority of which arc translations from the chinese language. They encompass translations from the Classics, a few old and metaphysical works, literary essays, collections of recognized writers, novels, poetry, legislation and rules, Imperial edicts, dictionaries, word books, ere. each one of these translations are very good, yet they're all literal. finished less than the eyes of clever princes, they shape a competent expression of the which means of the chinese language textual content and feature for that reason a correct to attractiveness equivalent to that liked via commentaries of excellent writers. Manchu being infinitely more straightforward to benefit than chinese language, those translations are an excellent aid in the direction of acquiring a transparent perception into chinese language syntax, and students like Stanislas Julien, who owed the amazing precision in his renderings to his wisdom of Manchu, have time and again pointed this out. In a letter addressed to Dr. Legge he alludes to the research of Manchu as being of significant tips in translating the Classics. Dr. Legge, although, within the preface to his translation of the Shuking, mentioned himself opposed to it. the explanations complex by means of this nice student usually are not very cogent, and, in truth, no longer realizing the language, he used to be rarely efficient to pass judgement on. yet, whether he have been correct, others should be in a special place. Dr. Legge used to be might be extra lucky or extra proficient than most folk and had a radical mastery of chinese language on the time whilst St. Julien wrote to him. those that locate chinese language more challenging have a tendency to contemplate the Manchu translations a very good aid.

This grammar being meant for the sensible function of guiding the coed in...

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Extra info for A Manchu grammar, with analysed texts

Example text

This, in turn, warrants the coreference relationship between the two. Before moving into the semantics of the LD’ed DP, two issues deserve discussion: one concerns the base-generation analysis, as opposed to a movement analysis; and the other concerns agreement. Staring with the first issue, the base-generation analysis adopted here is more desirable than a movement analysis, for several reasons. First, for a movement analysis, we have to stipulate that indefinite NPs cannot undergo movement, while definite DPs can.

Plunkett 1993 and Soltan 2007, on the other hand, argue for a base-generation analysis based on the simple fact that a left-dislocated DP may occur far away from its corresponding resumptive element. To recap, this section has presented a common type of construction in Arabic known as the topic-comment construction. The topic-comment construction involves the presence of a definite DP in the left-most position followed by a complete predication containing a resumptive pronoun whose antecedent is the topic DP.

Turning to Arabic copular constructions, the question of whether or not predicational constructions and equative constructions are syntactically the same has not been fully explored in the literature. 22 Chapter One One of the earliest approaches to the syntax of copular constructions in Arabic is developed in Eid (1983, 1991 and 1992). , the so-called the copula pronoun. Eid divides copular constructions into two types: simple copular sentences and equative copular sentences, as we have seen in the previous section.

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