By Bennett C.E.

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VEla dw! ‘John! ’ Parentheses are used to isolate a word or phrase that is interpolated into a phrase, clause or sentence. : 1 O Giavnnh~ qa evrqei – elpivzw! – auvrio. John will come – I hope! – tomorrow. In practice, however, many writers confuse the two. The dash is also used to introduce the speech of each character in a dialogue (see below). There are two different conventions for indicating direct speech. According to the first, each character’s speech is introduced by a dash, with no indication of the boundary between the speech and the narrative.

Singular -a~, plural -avde~ (with stress on the penultimate syllable): tsevligka~ ‘chief shepherd’. Feminine nouns.. 13) is valid 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 1111 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 1 12111 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30111 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40 41111 here too. ) Similarly, we must also divide the parisyllabic feminine nouns in -a into two types according to the stress of the genitive plural. Type (a) nouns have the stress on the penultimate syllable in the genitive plural.

However, avnqrwpo~ ‘person, human being’ is always masculine and paidiv ‘child’ is always neuter irrespective of the sex of the person they refer to, while korivtsi ‘girl’ and agovri ‘boy’ are also neuter. Nouns denoting animals, inanimate objects, substances, natural phenomena and abstract concepts may be masculine, feminine or neuter: • • • • • 22 skuvlo~ ‘dog’ is masculine and gavta ‘cat’ is feminine (though there is a feminine form skuvla ‘bitch’ and a masculine form gavto~ ‘tomcat’), while two alternative forms exist for ‘donkey’, namely the masculine gavidaro~ and the neuter gai>douvri, besides the feminine gai>douvra ‘female donkey’ markadovro~ ‘marker (pen)’ is masculine, karevkla ‘chair’ is feminine and trapevzi ‘table’ is neuter udravrguro~ ‘mercury’ is masculine, kimwliva ‘chalk’ is feminine and xuvlo ‘wood’ is neuter aevra~ ‘air, wind’ is masculine, brochv ‘rain’ is feminine and calavzi ‘hail’ is neuter povlemo~ ‘war’ is masculine, eleuqeriva ‘freedom’ is feminine and kevφi ‘high spirits’ is neuter (in fact the majority of abstract nouns are feminine) The gender of a noun has to be learned at the same time as the noun.

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A Latin Grammar by Bennett C.E.

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