By Thomas Baigneres, Pascal Junod, Yi Lu, Jean Monnerat, Serge Vaudenay
TO CRYPTOGRAPHY workout booklet Thomas Baignkres EPFL, Switzerland Pascal Junod EPFL, Switzerland Yi Lu EPFL, Switzerland Jean Monnerat EPFL, Switzerland Serge Vaudenay EPFL, Switzerland Springer - Thomas Baignbres Pascal Junod EPFL - I&C - LASEC Lausanne, Switzerland Lausanne, Switzerland Yi Lu Jean Monnerat EPFL - I&C - LASEC EPFL-I&C-LASEC Lausanne, Switzerland Lausanne, Switzerland Serge Vaudenay Lausanne, Switzerland Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication info A C.I.P. Catalogue checklist for this publication is on the market from the Library of Congress. A CLASSICAL creation TO CRYPTOGRAPHY workout ebook via Thomas Baignkres, Palcal Junod, Yi Lu, Jean Monnerat and Serge Vaudenay ISBN- 10: 0-387-27934-2 e-ISBN-10: 0-387-28835-X ISBN- thirteen: 978-0-387-27934-3 e-ISBN- thirteen: 978-0-387-28835-2 published on acid-free paper. O 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. All rights reserved. This paintings will not be translated or copied in complete or partially with no the written permission of the writer (Springer Science+Business Media, Inc., 233 Spring highway, big apple, manhattan 10013, USA), apart from short excerpts in reference to stories or scholarly research. Use in reference to any kind of details garage and retrieval, digital variation, software program, or by means of comparable or diverse technique now comprehend or hereafter built is forbidden. The use during this ebook of alternate names, logos, provider marks and related phrases, whether the aren't pointed out as such, isn't to be taken as an expression of opinion to whether or no longer they're topic to proprietary rights. published within the us of a
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Additional info for A classical introduction to cryptography exercise book
The probability that the cryptanalyst sends ki (i E (1,. . ,N ) ) to the oracle is P ~ [= Eki]. The cryptanalyst iteratively queries the oracle with randomly selected keys, in an independent way, until he finds the right one. Note that, as the queries are independent, the complexity could in principle be infinite (we say that the algorithm is memoryless). The strategy of the cryptanalyst is to select a distribution for his queries. , when K is uniformly distributed). How do you improve the attack?
More details about cascade ciphers and their security can be found in . 11. 11. 4) holds then 3: display K3 4: end if 5: end for it does not yield any wrong key (with high probability). Once ks is found, the adversary can peel the third layer off, and do a meet-in-themiddle attack on the last two layers. Note that we typically need both plaintext blocks A and B in order to eliminate wrong key candidates during the meet-in-the-middle. The complexity of this part of the attack is ~ ( 2 ' )in time and ~ ( 2 ' )in storage.
This leaves 219-2 = 217 different initialization states. We can also consider the case where R1= 0 and R1= 1, so that R1 will be shifted exactly once. Here, it is sufficient to have R1 = R1= 0 to obtain a keystream with only zeros. This leaves 219-4 = 215 d ifferent initialization states. Following the same reasoning, we deduce the following lower bound on the number of possible initializations states in this case: R2 # 0 and R1 = R3 = 0: We similarly obtain a lower bound eaual to w For For R3 # 0 and R1 = R2 = 0: We similarly obtain a lower bound 50 EXERCISE BOOK Summing these values, we conclude that there are at least 222 such initialization states.
A classical introduction to cryptography exercise book by Thomas Baigneres, Pascal Junod, Yi Lu, Jean Monnerat, Serge Vaudenay