By Semenov K.N.

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Finally, the restricted notion of interest group better fits this book because only collective action style groups have the member interactions that underpin the social capital generating version of groups. Squaring a circle: The memberless interest group? The notion that ‘interest group-ness’ has something to do with membership and mobilization is an important thread in the literature. The preferred primary distinction here is between pressure participants and interest groups. However, caution needs to be exercised when applying the distinction between individual member- and nonmember-based interest groups.

While flaws are self-evident in a group-centred version, the idea that individuals can personally make effective interventions in the process, or that government can be relied upon to make policies in isolation of informed pressure is also defective. Most citizens seeking to promote, defend or advance a cause look for a relevant group as an effective transmission belt. As Nagel (1987: 3–4) argues, ‘While spontaneous popular action warms the heart of any good democrat, a moment’s reflection shows that the people initiate little of what we normally call participation Acts of participation are stimulated by elites – if not by government, then parties, interest groups, agitators, and organizers’ (cited in Rosenstone and Hansen, 1993: 10).

Non-exclusionary) to non-members with characteristics similar to members. Olson said such groups must attract support via the provision of selective incentives or potential members will remain non-mobilized. 44 Democracy and Interest Groups However, the typical public interest group has effectively no such incentives to offer. Were this element of the Olson argument unchallenged, the interest group system emerges as potentially biased. If groups can only overcome membership resistance by offering rewards conditional on joining – that is not free-rideable – this implies an issue left unexamined in most discussions of the impact of intra-group political activity.

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A basis of identities of the Lie algebra s(2) over a finite field by Semenov K.N.


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